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Creator John Constable, 1776–1837, British
Title Hadleigh Castle, The Mouth of the Thames--Morning after a Stormy Night
Alternate Title(s) Hadleigh Castle
Date 1829
Medium Oil on canvas
Dimensions 48 x 64 3/4 inches (121.9 x 164.5 cm) Frame: 59 1/2 × 76 1/4 inches (151.1 × 193.7 cm)
Credit Line Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Accession Number B1977.14.42
Collection Paintings and Sculpture
Curatorial Comment In the famous letter of 23 October 1821 to his friend Archdeacon Fisher, John Constable reported: “I have not been Idle and have made more particular and general study than I have ever done in one summer, but I am most anxious to get into my London painting room, for I do not consider myself at work without I am before a six foot canvas” (Constable, “Correspondence”, p. 76). To some extent, the scale of Constable's great “six-footer” landscape paintings reflected both his high aspirations for landscape in general, and his desire for professional recognition and financial security. Yet Hadleigh Castle, which comes relatively late in the sequence of six-footers, in 1829, is among his least characteristic landscape views on a grand scale. Compared with “The White Horse” (1819; Frick Collection, New York), “Stratford Mill”, “The Hay Wain” (1820 and 1821; both National Gallery, London), and other paintings, each with its determined avoidance of heroic elements of the picturesque, each with its affectionate embrace of the seemingly commonplace features of rural life, “Hadleigh Castle” stands apart. The foreground vantage point is elevated and offers no convenient path into the difficult topography that descends toward the river flats to the right. The ruined castle clings to a rocky escarpment that winds into the distance and separates shepherd and cowherd and, presumably, their flock and herd. On the right, the Thames estuary opens out to the east, creating an immense, flat, gleaming distance beneath lowering clouds and theatrical slanting rays of morning sunlight. It is a landscape of revelation, not of domesticity. Constable had visited Hadleigh in the summer of 1814 and in a letter to his wife, Maria, described the place as “a ruin of a castle which from its situation is really a fine place—it commands a view of the Kent hills, the Nore [the stretch of water beyond the mouth of the Thames] and the North Foreland & looking many miles to sea” (Constable, “Correspondence”, vol. 2, p. 127). He drew the place in his sketchbook (Victoria & Albert Museum, London) and appears not to have considered the subject again until fourteen years later, when, in about 1828, he worked up a small oil sketch (Paul Mellon Collection, ycba) and embarked upon the present composition (1829), by way of his accustomed, full-scale six-foot study (ca. 1828–29; Tate, London). He may have been prompted toward the unusually dramatic subject, with its hints at decay and regeneration, by the death from tuberculosis of his beloved wife in November 1828, but it seems that his election, at long last, in February 1829 to full membership of the Royal Academy may also have led Constable to consider the advantages of exhibiting a subject more conventionally picturesque and heroic than might otherwise have attracted him. These two immense changes in his working and personal life obviously went hand in hand. With leaden tact, Sir Thomas Lawrence, the President, had told Constable that he should consider himself lucky to have been elected to the Academy at all, since he had been competing against several talented history painters. Constable's status as an “R.A.” therefore had the effect of raising the stakes, and “Hadleigh Castle” may well reflect his desire to adjust his manner of landscape painting in view of the expectations arising from this new professional challenge, made twice as difficult by the grief he suffered after the death of Maria. To some extent he remained desolate and depressed for the rest of his life—he called himself a ruin of a man. While dwelling on the decay of the medieval building in its pastoral setting and causing the Thames estuary to shine under grand shafts of light, Constable perhaps also alludes to the ancient Christian metaphor of death: all his boats point downstream and, receding, sail out to sea.
     -- Angus Trumble, 2007-01
Link to This Record http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/1669233
Subject Terms architectural subject | birds | boats | castle | clouds | cows | death | dog (animal) | estuary | hills | landscape | light | melancholy | men | metaphor | meteorology | morning | path | river | ruins | science | shepherd | storm | walking
Place Represented England | Essex | Hadleigh | Hadleigh Castle | Southend-on-Sea | Thames | Thames Estuary | United Kingdom
Publications

Julia Marciari-Alexander, This other Eden, paintings from the Yale Center for British Art, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1998, pp. 17, 18, 19,, no. 59, fig. 18, ND1314.3 Y36 1998 (YCBA)


John Baskett, Paul Mellon's legacy, a passion for British art : masterpieces from the Yale Center for British Art, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2007, pp. 288-9, no. 100, N5220 M552 P38 2007 OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Christiana Payne, Where the sea meets the land, artists on the coast in nineteenth century Britain, Sansom & Co., Bristol, 2007, ND1373 G7 P38 2007 (YCBA)


Lindsay Rothwell, Paul Mellon's legacy, an American's passion for British art : Sackler Wing of Galleries, 20 October 2007 - 27 January 2008 : an introduction to the exhibition for teachers and students., Royal Academy of Arts, London, UK, 2007, pp. 5-8, no. 100, V 2038 (YCBA)


Paul Mellon's legacy, a passion for British art. [large print labels], Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2007, v. 3, N5220 M552 +P381 2007, Mellon Shelf (YCBA)


Yale Center for British Art, Selected paintings, drawings & books, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977, p. 39, N590.2 A82 (YCBA)


Painting in England 1700-1850, collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Mellon., Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA, 1963, pp. 83-84 (v. 1), no. 113, pl. 43, ND466 V57 v.1-2 (YCBA)


National Gallery of Art, Painting in Georgian England from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1970, p. 20, slide 57, ND488 P25 (YCBA)


Leslie Parris, Constable, pictures from the exhibition, Tate Publishing, London, UK, 1991, p. 64, NJ18 C74 P373 1991 (YCBA)


Graham Reynolds, The later paintings and drawings of John Constable, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1984, pp. 199-200, no. 29.1, pl. 704, NJ18 C74 R485 + (YCBA)


Ray Lambert, John Constable and the theory of landscape painting, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, 2004, p. 102-04..., fig. 26, NJ18 C74 L36 2004 (YCBA)


Peter Bishop, An archetypal Constable, national identity and the geography of nostalgia, Athlone, London, UK, 1995, no. 9, NJ18 C74 B57 1995 (YCBA)


John Constable, a selection of paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1969, pp. 56-57, no. 61, NJ18 C74 U5 (YCBA)


Malcolm Warner, Great British paintings from American collections, Holbein to Hockney, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2001, pp. 166-67, no. 48, ND464 W27 2001 (YCBA)


Louis Hawes, Presences of nature, British landscape, 1780-1830, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1982, pp. 157-59, no. III.30, pl. 1, 132, ND1354.4 H38 (YCBA)


Malcolm Warner, The Paul Mellon Bequest, treasures of a lifetime, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2001, p. 36, N5247 M385 P28 2001 (YCBA)


Richard Wollheim, Painting as an art, Thames and Hudson, London, UK, 1987, p. 87, no. 70, ND1440 W78 (YCBA)


Robert Hoozee, L'opera completa di Constable, 98, Rizzoli, Milano, Italy, 1979, p. 137, no. 502, Tav. LVII;, NJ18 C74 A12 H66 + (YCBA)


Graham Reynolds, Constable's England, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, 1983, pp. 160-1, no. 58, NJ18 C74 R496 (YCBA)


Leslie Parris, Constable, paintings, watercolours & drawings, Tate Publishing, London, UK, 1976, p. 156, No. 263, fig. 263, NJ18 C74 P37 + (YCBA)


Yale University Art Gallery, Painting in England, 1700-1850, from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, [exhibition at] Yale University Art Gallery, April 15-June 20, 1965., vol. 1, W. Clowes and sons, , 1965, pp. 9-10 (v. 1), no. 32, ND466 Y35 (YCBA)


Correspondence, v.4, 6, 8, 10-12, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1962, p. 76 (v.6), NJ18 C74 A2 1962 (YCBA)


Charles John Holmes, Constable and his influence on landscape painting, Archibald Constable and Company, Limited, Westminster, UK, 1902, pp. 107-12..., Folio A N80 (YCBA)


Malcolm Cormack, A concise catalogue of paintings in the Yale Center for British Art, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1985, pp. 64-65, N590.2 A83 (YCBA)


Painting in England 1700-1850 from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, The Royal Academy of Arts Winter Exhibition 1964-65., , Royal Academy of Arts, London, UK, 1964, p. 21-22 (v.1).., no. 68, ND466 R68 1964 65 (YCBA) , Also available on Microfiche: Fiche B214 (YCBA)


In honor of Paul Mellon, collector and benefactor, Essays, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC & Hanover, NH, 1986, pp. 4-5, fig. 2, N7442.2 M455 1986 (YCBA)


In honor of Paul Mellon, collector and benefactor, Essays, Patrick Noon, Washington, DC & Hanover, NH, 1986, pp. 4-5, fig. 2, N7442.2 M455 1986 (YCBA)


Jonathan Wordsworth, William Wordsworth and the age of English romanticism, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick Grasmere, UK, 1987, pp. 179-80, 232, no. 273, fig. 168, PR5885 W67 1987 (YCBA)


Leslie Parris, Constable, Tate Publishing, London, UK, 1991, pp. 312-14, fig. 84, NJ18 C74 P372 1991 + (YCBA)


Constable, the great landscapes, Tate Publishing, London, UK, 2006, pp.23, 26, 37..., no. 57, NJ18 C74 C77 2006 + (YCBA)


Luke Herrmann, The Paul Mellon Collection at Burlington House, Connoisseur, v. 157, no. 634, December 1964, p. 221, N1 C75 + OVERSIZE (YCBA) , Another copy available in YCBA Vertical File Collection: v 2334


Malcolm Cormack, A Selective Promenade, Apollo, v.105, no. 182, April 1977, pp. 290-1, fig. 9, N1 A54 + (YCBA) , Another copy of this article may be found in a separately bound and catalogued copy of this issue located on the Mellon Shelf [call number : N5220 M552 A7 1977 + (YCBA)]


Geoffrey Agnew, Yale's 1700 Mellon Pictures, The Times (London), issue no. 59989, Thursday, April 28, 1977, p. 9, Available Online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm : Film An T842 (SML)


Denys Sutton, Principles and Priorities in British Art, Apollo, v. 122, no. 283, September, 1985, pp. 192-93, no. 37, N1 A54 + (YCBA)


Louis Hawes, Constable's Hadleigh Castle and British Romantic Ruin Painting, Art Bulletin, v. 65., no. 3, September, 1983, pp. 455-470, no. 1, figs. 1 and 7, N11 C4 + (YCBA) , Also Available online via JSTOR


John Baskett, Painting in England: 1700-1850, the Collection of English paintings formed by Mr and Mrs Paul Mellon : on Exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts, Richmind, untik August 18th, Connoisseur, Vol. 153, June 1963, p. 101, N1 C75 + (YCBA)


Horsfall Turner, Olivia., Nobleness & grandeur, forging historical landscape in Britain 1760-1850., Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2005, no. 56, V 1420 (YCBA)


The romantic landscape print, the chiaroscuro of nature, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2002, no. 14, V 0998 (YCBA)


John E. Thornes, John Constable's skies, a fusion of art and science, University of Birmingham Press, Birmingham, UK, 1999, pp. 136-37, pl. 54, NJ18 C74 T56 1999 (YCBA)


Basil Taylor, Constable, paintings, drawings and watercolours;, Phaidon, London, UK, 1973, pp. 10, 30..., no. 121, NJ18 C74 T39 + (YCBA)


Michael Rosenthal, Constable, Thames and Hudson, London, UK, 1987, pp. 176-8, 206, fig. 169, NJ18 C74 R683 (YCBA)


British Art at Yale, Apollo, v.105, no. 182, April 1977, pp. 276, 290-1, fig. 9, N5220 M552 A7 1977 OVERSIZE (YCBA) , Published as April 1977 issue of Apollo; all of the articles may also be found in bound Apollo Volume [N1 A54 105:2 +]


Charles John Holmes, Constable's Hadleigh Castle, Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, v. 68, no. 396, March 1936, pp. 107-113, N1 B87 + OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Charles John Holmes, Constable's Hadeigh Castle [ addendum], Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, v. 68, no. 399, June 1936, pp. 294-95, N1 B87 + OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Constable's clouds, paintings and cloud studies by John Constable, National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh & Liverpool, UK, 2000, p.157, fig. 92, NJ18 C74 C76 2000 + (YCBA)


Exhibition Catalogue. 1829. 61st., Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts, no. 61, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1829, p. 18, no. 322, N5054 A53 50-64 (YCBA)


Leslie Parris, The Tate Gallery Constable collection, a catalogue, Tate Britain, London, UK, 1981, pp. 128-33, fig. 1, NJ18 C74 P374 + (YCBA)


Catalogue of the Constable collection, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK, 1973, pp. 94. 190, NJ18 C74 R495 1973 (YCBA)


Ian Fleming-Williams, Constable and his drawings, Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd, London, UK, 1990, pp.227-29, fig.212, NJ18 C74 F53 1990 (YCBA)


Ian Fleming-Williams, The discovery of Constable, H. Hamilton, London, 1984, pp. 17-18, pl. 16, NJ18.C74 F55 (YCBA)


Malcolm Cormack, Constable, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, 1986, p. 86..., pls. 179, 181, NJ18 C74 C75 OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Michael Rosenthal, Constable, the painter and his landscape, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1983, pp. 214-21, figs. 245, 247, NJ18 C74 R68 OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Denys Sutton, Some English Landscapes in Mr. Mellon's Collection, Apollo, vol. 77,ns.# 14, April 1963, pp. 268, 282, frontpiece, N1 A54 + (YCBA) , Another copy also Available in Vertical File - V1168


Charles Robert Leslie, Memoirs of the life of John Constable, R.A., The Medici Society, Ltd., London, UK, 1937, pp. xxxiv..., NJ18 C74 L47 1937 (YCBA)


Charles Robert Leslie, Memoirs of the life of John Constable composed chiefly of his letters, Phaidon Press, London, UK, 1951, pp. 173..., NJ18 C74 L47 1951 (YCBA)


Graham Reynolds, Constable, the natural painter, Panther, St. Albans, UK, 1976, pp. 17..., unnumbered plate, NJ18 C74 R48 1976 (YCBA)


Centenary exhibition of paintings and water-colours by John Constable, R.A. (1776-1837), May 4th to August 31st, 1937., Tate Britain, London, UK, 1937, p. 12, no. 6, NJ18 C74 T36 1937 (YCBA)


Graham Reynolds, English Landscape 1630-1850, Apollo, vol.105, no. 182, April 1977, p. 276, N1 A54 105:2 + (YCBA) , Another copy of this article may be found in a separately bound and catalogued copy of this issue located on the Mellon Shelf [call number : N5220 M552 A7 1977 + (YCBA)]


Graham Reynolds, Scene and Sensibility, TLS, the Times Literary Supplement, issue no. 4178, April 29, 1983, p. 438, Film S748 (SML) , Also available OnLine in TLS Historical Archive (ORBIS)


Simon Schama, The Yale Centre for British Art, TLS, the Times Literary Supplement, Issue no. 3923, May 20, 1977, p. 620, Film S748 (SML) , Also avaiable online in TLS Historical Archive (ORBIS)


Timothy Wilcox, Constable and Salisbury, the soul of landscape, Scala Publishers, London, UK, 2011, pp. 161-64, fig. 131, NJ18.C74 W53 2011 Oversize (YCBA)


The Grosvenor Exhibition ( First Notice ), Athenaeum, no. 3142, January 14, 1888, p.56, Available Online : British Periodicals II , Also Available : A88 At421+ OVERSIZE (SML)


The Grosvenor Exhibition ( Second Notice ), Athenaeum, no. 3144, January 28, 1888, p. 122, Available Online: British Perriodcals II , Also Available: A88 At421 + OVERSIZE (SML)


Graham Reynolds, John Constable, Struggle and Success, Apollo, vol. 103, no. 170, April 1976, pp. 323, 324, N1 A54 + OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Cosmo Monkhouse, The Grosvenor Gallery, a Century of British Art, Academy, no. 819, January 14, 1888, p. 31, Available online British Periodicals II , Also available Film S2503 (SML)


The Exhibition at the Royal Academy, London Magazine, 3d. ser., vol. 3, no. 15, June 1829, pp. 606-07, Available online British Periodcals II , Also availble A88 55 (LSF) and Film S2561 (SML)


Michael Kitson, John Constable at the Tate, Burlington Magazine, vol. 118, no. 877, April, 1976, p. 252, N1 B87 + OVERSIZE (YCBA)


Timothy J. Barringer, The Englishness of Thomas Cole, University of New Hampshire Press, Durham, NH, 2011, pp. 43-44, 45, fig. 1.18 & Pl 4, V2383 (YCBA


Hadleigh Castle, Constable's picture for the National Gallery, The Times (London), Saturday, February 8, 1936, p. 10, Available online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)


Hadleigh Castle, History of Constable's Paintings, The Times (London), Friday, March 20, 1936, p. 17, Available online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)


Alan Sorrell, Hadleigh Castle, To the Editor of the Times, The Times (London), Friday, March 1, 1946, p. 5, Available online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)


Hadleigh Castle, A Constable Subject, The Times (London), Friday, March 1, 1946, p. 6, Available online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)


Science and Feeling in Constable's Hadleigh Castle, The Times (London), Tuesday, January 26, 1965, p. 15, Available online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)


The Grosvenor Gallery, "A Century of British Art", Glasgow Herald, Glasgow, Scotland, Wednesday, January 4, 1888, p. 4, Available online at 19th century Brit Newspapers , Article retrieved from 19th century British Library Newspapers


Olympic Theatre, The picture of the late Royal Academician, Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, London, Saturday, May 5, 1838, p. 5, Available online at 19th Century Brit Newspapers , Article retrieved from 19th Century British Library Newspapers


The Literary Examiner, Memoirs of the Life of John Constable, Esq., R.A., composed chiefly of his Letters. By C.R. Leslie, R.A. Longman and Co., Examiner, no. 1965, London, Saturday, September 27, 1845, p. 612, Available online at 19th Century Brit Newspapers , Article retrieved from 19th Century British Library Newspapers


George Dunlop Leslie, John Constable, R.A., Art Journal, Virtue, London, January 1903, p. 9, Available online at British Periodicals II , Article retrieved from British Periodicals II


Tricia Cusack, Art and identity at the water's edge, Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, VT, 2012, pp. 26-27, fig. 2.2, N72 S6 A7195 2012 (YCBA)


Catherine M. Gordon, British paintings Hogarth to Turner, Frederick Warne, London, 1981, p. 8, ND466 G67 (YCBA)


A Great Collection of British Pictures in Virginia, The Times (London), Issue No. 55689, May 1, 1963, p. 5, Available Online : Times Digital Archive , Also available on Microfilm: Film An T482 (SML)


The critique of reason : Romantic art, 1760-1860 : March 6-July 26, 2015, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, 2015, [pp. 6, 7], fig. 9, V 2574 (YCBA)


The critique of reason : Romantic art, 1760-1860 : March 6-July 26, 2015, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, 2015, [pp. 6, 7], fig. 9, V 2574 (YCBA)


William Vaughan, John Constable, Tate Publishing, London, 2015, pp. 80, 83, 100, fig. 55, NJ18.C74 V28 2015 (YCBA)

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