Translation of a report by Álvaro de Bazan, marquês de Santa Cruz, on the defense of Spain and the West Indies from Sir Francis Drake : manuscript.
- England, circa 1597.
- Physical Description:
- 1 sheet : pen and black ink ; 29 x 37 cm
- Rare Books and ManuscriptsFolio A 2018 4Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon CollectionView by request in the Study Room [Request]
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- Copyright Status:
- Copyright Not Evaluated
- Archives & Manuscripts
- Provenance: Henry Stevens; Sir Thomas Phillipps; Paul Mellon.
Selected exhibitions: "Wilde Americk: Discovery and Exploration of the New World" (Yale Center for British Art, 27 September-30 December, 2001).
Fairman, E. "'Wherin all trauailers may vnderstand how to direct their voyages': Maps and Atlases at the Yale Center for British Art from the Bequest of Paul Mellon." In Yale University Library Gazette, 75 (2001), pages 139, 141
Quinn, D. B. Hakluyt Handbook, v. 1, page 288
Divers voyages touching the discovery of America and the islands adjacent (1850), pages cx-cxi
Manuscript, in the hand of Richard Hakluyt, concerning the defense of Spain and the West Indies from Sir Francis Drake. It is apparently an early draft of a translation by Hakluyt of the recommendations of the marquês de Santa Cruz, High Admiral of Spain and the West Indies, to defend against possible raids by Drake. Drake's appearance off the coast of Spain in September 1585 caused great consternation at the Spanish court, but whether he was about to attack Spain or the West Indies was still in doubt. The marquês, the most renowned naval officer in Europe, drew up a list of recommendations to deal with the problem. It is that document that Hakluyt here partially translates in his own hand and to which he appends his signature.
The recommendations include: "that the castles of this citie, river, and teritorie bee victuayled. And that they bee provided of powder, mach, and leade, and althinge els touchinge artillerie.... That the galies bee provided for fower monethes, and that sixe more bee brought from Spayne ... w[i]th 120 soldiers in every galie.... Al these thinge seem unto mee to bee necessarie for his Ma[jes]ties service to bee prepared w[i]th greate diligence and care...."
The manuscript is signed and dated 26 October 1585. By that date Drake had already looted the city of Vigo on the coast of Spain and was on his way to raid the Spanish settlements in the Cape Verde Islands.
Hakluyt's original intention was to publish only the small portion of the document that he copied, but afterwards he changed his mind, for in the Principal navigations he prints not only the entire Spanish text, but a new translation of its entirety (1598-1600 edition, v. 3, p. 532). The text of the present document corresponds with that in the printed text under the caption "But in case that Don Antonio should come with an armie ..."
- Subject Terms:
- Bazan, Álvaro de, marquês de Santa Cruz, 1526-1588.Drake, Francis, approximately 1540-1596.Great Britain -- History, Naval -- Tudors, 1485-1603.Phillipps, Thomas, Sir, 1792-1872 -- Ownership.Spain -- History, Naval -- 16th century.West Indies Expedition, 1585-1586.
YCBA Collections Search
Hakluyt, Richard, 1552?-1616, Translation of a report by Álvaro de Bazan, marquês de Santa Cruz, on the defense of Spain and the West Indies from Sir Francis Drake , circa 1597