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Clifford, Edward, 1844–1907
Edward Clifford scrapbooks.
circa 1870-circa 1925.
Physical Description:
4 volumes
Rare Books and Manuscripts
Folio A 2011 14
Yale Center for British Art, Gift of the Honolulu Academy of Arts
Copyright Status:
Copyright Not Evaluated
Archives & Manuscripts
Edward Clifford (1844-1907) was a minor pre-Ralphaelite artist, specializing in portraiture and biblical subjects. In the 1860s and 70s he worked as an assistant to Edward Burne-Jones. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Clifford devoted himself to missonary activity, with notables trips to Hawaii and India. In Hawaii, he worked with Father Damien, who was renowned for his care of lepers (Clifford published a memoir of this experience in 1889). Clifford died in London, in 1907, apparently unmarried, and having lived and traveled with his sister Margaret and other siblings for much of his life. Margaret Clifford (Williams) married while in India, where her husband was involved in Anglican mission work. It appears she returned to Bristol, England after her husband's death.
Gift of the Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2001.
Manuscript scrapbooks compiled by Edward Clifford and Margaret Clifford, together with two albums of photographs of Japan. The Clifford scrapbooks contain a wide variety of material, and range in date from about 1870 to 1925. The albums of photographs of Japan date to the late 19th century.
Edward Clifford's name is inscribed on the first page of the largest of the albums, with a warning to viewers not to "touch the photographs and pictures" therein. The album appears, however, to have had some of its pages either partially or fully removed at some point. This album represents at least one year of Clifford's life and travels--many of the items on its pages are dated 1892. In it, Clifford includes newspaper articles about the engagement and untimely death of Prince Albert Edward and the passing of Cardinal Manning: both men died on January 14, 1892. In addition to cutouts from newspapers and magazines, Clifford includes many large photographic reproductions of early Italian painting, depicting works by da Vinci, along with the work of contemporary artists such as Burne Jones and Rossetti. There are other large-scale photographs representing locations in France and Italy, to which Clifford and his sister Margaret appear to have traveled later in 1892, based on Clifford's inscriptions below the images. A few items of correspondence are also included, in particular a letter referencing the election of Edward's brother Alfred to the Anglican Bishopric of Lucknow, India (Alfred Clifford was the first such Bishop).
The second album seems to have belonged to Margaret Clifford (Williams), whose name is inscribed on the flyleaf of the album. The album contains decorative scraps, correspondence, newspaper articles (including one on a recent story about out-of-body experiences published in the Society for Psychical Research), and many photographs. The photographs depict family and friends and seem to range in date from the 1860s through the early 1900s. Margaret labels an initial set of photographs, seemingly the most modern of those in the album, as “At Pilt,” which may indicate a family home. Other images depict earlier generations of the family. It is possible that some of the photographs show Margaret with her husband, who had passed away by 1901 (she is listed as a “widow” in the 1901 English census). The album briefly documents, in pen and ink sketches, Margaret's life in India. A series of drawings show interiors of “Krishnagar Mission House arranged by Alfred and me.” The album also includes a letter discussing attempts to contact a spirit through table-tilting--signed, cryptically, “F.W.” Edward Clifford was an associate of John Ruskin's in the late 19th century, and through him knew F.W.H. Myers, a philosopher and poet and one of the founders of the Society for Psychical Research. Perhaps the “F.W.” who writes this letter is Myers. Another letter, dated May 1898, is from Helen Gladstone, and references her father (William Gladstone), thanking the Cliffords for their prayers during his illness (Gladstone died May 19, 1898). Other letters preserved in the album appear to have been addressed to Edward Clifford, and refer to portrait painting. Correspondence between Margaret's children and herself appear here as well--letters written from her sons, who were away at school, and small handmade mementoes or drawings made by the children are arranged throughout the book.
Albums three and four, identical in binding and dimensions, feature large hand-colored albumen prints of scenes in Japan, from the late 19th century. The photographs include a mixture of scenic views and depictions of Japanese people and daily life. The views show landscapes and towns around Tokyo, many gardens, and natural wonders like the Tamadare Waterfall at Hakone. The more "candid" scenes of life in Japan may in fact be staged. They depict life in small villages, local clothing and dress, and notable public architecture. Most of the photographs include printed labels, although some are labeled in pen and ink on the album pages. The photographs may be the work of Esaki Reiji, one of Tokyo's foremost photographers during this era. Nonetheless, it is unclear why these pieces were assembled and preserved thusly; there is little indication of Clifford's presence in Japan, although it may have been a destination for him during his travels for missionary work in India.
Subject Terms:
Clifford family.
Clifford, Alfred, 1849-1931.
Clifford, Edward, 1844-1907.
Esaki, Reiji, 1845-1910.
India -- Pictorial works.
Japan -- Pictorial works.
Missionaries -- Great Britain.
Williams, Margaret Clifford.
Ink drawings.
Albumen prints.
Portrait photographs.
Photograph albums.
Williams, Margaret Clifford.

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