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Samuel Cooper, 1609–1672, British
Charles Stuart, third Duke of Richmond and sixth Duke of Lennox
between 1661 and 1667
Watercolor and gouache with gold on parchment laid down on card
Sheet: 2 3/4 x 2 1/4 inches (7 x 5.7 cm) and Frame: 3 1/4 x 2 1/4 x 1/8 inches (8.3 x 5.7 x 0.3 cm)

Engraved on back of locket center: "Prince Rupert"

Signed in gouache lower left: "SC"

Credit Line:
Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Copyright Status:
Public Domain
Accession Number:
Drawings & Watercolors-Miniatures
Prints and Drawings
Subject Terms:
Associated People:
Stuart, Charles, sixth duke of Lennox and third duke of Richmond (1639–1672), courtier and ambassador
Accessible by request in the Study Room [Request]
Note: As a COVID-19 precaution, the Study Room is closed until further notice.
Curatorial Comment:
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Cooper's talent for portraying likeness is supremely demonstrated in this exquisite miniature. Long misidentified, the sitter was correctly identified as Charles Stuart, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox (1639–72), by Patrick Noon (Noon, 1979, pp. 8–9). Noon recognized the close physical resemblance between the sitter in this work and that of Richmond in a full-length portrait painted by Sir Peter Lely (ca. 1661; North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh). Close—almost exact—correspondence between a number of Cooper miniatures and large-scale oil portraits by Lely strongly suggests that the two artists (who lived near each other in Covent Garden) collaborated after the mid-1650s. Although the precise nature of their artistic partnership remains uncertain, it seems most likely that Lely turned to Cooper's portraits—many of which remained unfinished in his studio until his death (they were probably used by the miniaturist to make replicas)—in the creation of his full-scale oil portraits. In fact, among these unfinished works in his studio was a portrait of Richmond with “the face finished and the rest in sketch only” (Foskett, 1974, pp. 63–65). The present miniature, fully finished and signed in monogram, is certainly not that referred to above, but it may be a replica of this lost unfinished work. Painted probably around 1661, when Richmond was made Gentleman of the Bedchamber and Knight of the Order of the Garter, this portrait depicts him at the height of his career at court. Unfortunately, he did not live up to his political or military promise and is mainly remembered for his profligate love affairs. In 1667 he eloped with Frances Teresa Stuart (1647/8–1702), a choice of bride that proved perilous. His elopement with the well-known object of the king's—apparently unrequited—desire led to the couple's immediate banishment from court; they were allowed to return only after she recovered from a near-fatal case of smallpox. Notorious for his dissolute lifestyle, Richmond died in 1672, at the age of thirty-three, leaving his beautiful bride with a vast fortune and her freedom.
--Julia Marciari-Alexander,2007-01
Exhibition History:
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English Portrait Drawings & Miniatures (Yale Center for British Art, 1979-12-05 - 1980-02-17)

Paul Mellon's Legacy : A Passion for British Art (Yale Center for British Art, 2007-04-18 - 2007-07-29)

An American's Passion for British Art - Paul Mellon's Legacy (Yale Center for British Art, 2007-04-18 - 2007-07-29)

An American's Passion for British Art - Paul Mellon's Legacy (Royal Academy of Arts, 2007-10-20 - 2008-01-27)

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John Baskett, Paul Mellon's legacy, a passion for British art : masterpieces from the Yale Center for British Art , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2007, p. 243, cat. 6, N5220 M552 P38 2007 OVERSIZE (YCBA)

Bainbrigg Buckeridge, An Essay Towards an English School of Painters, J. Nutt, London, UK, 1706, p. 409-411, ND1130 P65 (YCBA)

John Dryden, A short account of the most eminent painters both ancient and modern, continued down to the present times, according to the order of their succession, De Arte Graphica/The Art of Painting, London, 1695, pp. 227-355, ND1130 D813 (RARE BOOKS, YCBA)

Daphne Foskett, Samuel Cooper and His Contemporaries, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1974, NJ18 C7465 F67 + Oversize (YCBA)

Andrew Moore, The Paston Treasure Microcosm of the Known World, Yale University Press, New Haven, p. 400, cat. 109, , NX543 .P37 2018 Oversize (YCBA)

Patrick Noon, English Portrait Drawings & Miniatures, Yale Center for British Art, 1979, p. 3, 4, no. 1, NC772 N66+ (Wall Shelf) (YCBA)

Yale Center for British Art, Selected paintings, drawings & books, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977, p. 2, N590.2 A82 (YCBA)

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