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Creator:
John Constable, 1776–1837, British
Title:

Hadleigh Castle, The Mouth of the Thames--Morning after a Stormy Night

Former Title(s):

Hadleigh Castle [as published in YCBA Concise Catalogue, 1985]

Date:
1829
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Support (PTG): 48 × 64 3/4 inches (121.9 × 164.5 cm)
Credit Line:
Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection
Copyright Status:
Public Domain
Accession Number:
B1977.14.42
Classification:
Paintings
Collection:
Paintings and Sculpture
Subject Terms:
boats | castle | clouds | cows | death | dog (animal) | estuary | hills | landscape | light | melancholy | men | metaphor | meteorology | path | river | ruins | science | shepherd | storm | walking
Associated Places:
England | Essex | Hadleigh | Hadleigh Castle | Southend-on-Sea | Thames | Thames Estuary | United Kingdom
Access:
Not on view
Link:
https://collections.britishart.yale.edu/catalog/tms:5001
Export:
XML

The ruins of Hadleigh Castle stand on the northern shore of the Thames estuary, overlooking the stretch of water known as the Nore, where the river meets the sea. Merchant ships come and go across the Nore, plying their trade with the far corners of the empire, a powerful contrast between modern civilization and the ruins of the feudal culture of the Middle Ages. John Constable made drawings at Hadleigh in 1814, remarking in a letter that he was “always delighted with the melancholy grandeur of the sea shore.” His grief following the death of his wife, Maria, in 1828, moved him to paint the view on a grand scale. He would be desolate and depressed, likening himself to a ruin, for the rest of his life. Looking toward the open sea, which gleams in the sunlight bursting through the clouds, his painting suggests the grief of a bereaved Christian looking toward heavenly consolation.

Gallery label for installation of YCBA collection, 2016



The ruins of the medieval Hadleigh Castle stand on the northern shore of the Thames estuary, overlooking the stretch of water known as the Nore, where the river meets the open sea. Constable made drawings there in 1814, remarking in a letter that he was “always delighted with the melancholy grandeur of a sea shore.” He was moved to paint the view on a grand scale by his grief over the death of his wife Maria in 1828. He was to be desolate and depressed, a ruin of a man—he used this image himself—for the rest of his life. Looking toward the open sea, which gleams in the sunlight bursting through clouds, his painting suggests the grief of the bereaved Christian looking toward heavenly consolation.

Gallery label for An American's Passion for British Art - Paul Mellon's Legacy (Yale Center for British Art, 2007-04-18 - 2007-07-29)



The ruins of Hadleigh Castle stand on the northern shore of the mouth of the Thames, overlooking a stretch of water known as the Nore. Constable made drawings there in 1814, remarking in a letter that he was "always delighted with the melancholy grandeur of a sea shore." He was moved to paint the view on a grand scale by his grief over the death in 1828 of his wife, Maria. He was desolate and depressed for the rest of his life, a ruin of a man, he called himself. While dwelling on the decay of the medieval building in its pastoral setting, and causing the estuary to gleam under grand shafts of sunlight, Constable also alludes to the ancient Christian metaphor of death: all his boats point downstream and, receding, sail out to sea.

Gallery label for installation of YCBA collection, 2005
In the famous letter of 23 October 1821 to his friend Archdeacon Fisher, John Constable reported: "I have not been Idle and have made more particular and general study than I have ever done in one summer, but I am most anxious to get into my London painting room, for I do not consider myself at work without I am before a six foot canvas" (Constable, Correspondence, p. 76). To some extent, the scale of Constable's great "six-footer" landscape paintings reflected both his high aspirations for landscape in general, and his desire for professional recognition and financial security. Yet Hadleigh Castle, which comes relatively late in the sequence of six-footers, in 1829, is among his least characteristic landscape views on a grand scale. Compared with The White Horse (1819; Frick Collection, New York), Stratford Mill, The Hay Wain (1820 and 1821; both National Gallery, London), and other paintings, each with its determined avoidance of heroic elements of the picturesque, each with its affectionate embrace of the seemingly commonplace features of rural life, Hadleigh Castle stands apart. The foreground vantage point is elevated and offers no convenient path into the difficult topography that descends toward the river flats to the right. The ruined castle clings to a rocky escarpment that winds into the distance and separates shepherd and cowherd and, presumably, their flock and herd. On the right, the Thames estuary opens out to the east, creating an immense, flat, gleaming distance beneath lowering clouds and theatrical slanting rays of morning sunlight. It is a landscape of revelation, not of domesticity.

Constable had visited Hadleigh in the summer of 1814 and in a letter to his wife, Maria, described the place as "a ruin of a castle which from its situation is really a fine place.-.it commands a view of the Kent hills, the Nore [the stretch of water beyond the mouth of the Thames] and the North Foreland & looking many miles to sea" (Constable, Correspondence, vol. 2, p. 127). He drew the place in his sketchbook (Victoria & Albert Museum, London) and appears not to have considered the subject again until fourteen years later, when, in about 1828, he worked up a small oil sketch (Paul Mellon Collection, ycba) and embarked upon the present composition (1829), by way of his accustomed, full-scale six-foot study (ca. 1828.-.29; Tate, London). He may have been prompted toward the unusually dramatic subject, with its hints at decay and regeneration, by the death from tuberculosis of his beloved wife in November 1828, but it seems that his election, at long last, in February 1829 to full membership of the Royal Academy may also have led Constable to consider the advantages of exhibiting a subject more conventionally picturesque and heroic than might otherwise have attracted him. These two immense changes in his working and personal life obviously went hand in hand. With leaden tact, Sir Thomas Lawrence, the President, had told Constable that he should consider himself lucky to have been elected to the Academy at all, since he had been competing against several talented history painters. Constable's status as an "R.A." therefore had the effect of raising the stakes, and Hadleigh Castle may well reflect his desire to adjust his manner of landscape painting in view of the expectations arising from this new professional challenge, made twice as difficult by the grief he suffered after the death of Maria. To some extent he remained desolate and depressed for the rest of his life.-.he called himself a ruin of a man. While dwelling on the decay of the medieval building in its pastoral setting and causing the Thames estuary to shine under grand shafts of light, Constable perhaps also alludes to the ancient Christian metaphor of death: all his boats point downstream and, receding, sail out to sea.

Angus Trumble

John Baskett, Paul Mellon's legacy: a passion for British art : masterpieces from the Yale Center for British Art, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2007, pp. 288-9, no. 100, N5220 M552 P38 2007 OVERSIZE (YCBA)



The ruins of the thirteenth-century Hadleigh Castle stand on the northern shore of the Thames estuary, overlooking the stretch of water known as the Nore, where the river meets the open sea. Constable shows the view looking southeast from the castle, with the tower of St. Clement's, Leigh-on-Sea further along the near shore, the shoreline and hills of Kent in the distance opposite, and the town of Sheerness on the far right. He first visited this spot in 1814 and wrote admiringly of the view in a letter to his fiancée Maria Bicknell: "At Hadleigh there is a ruin of a castle which from its situation is really a fine place-it commands a view of the Kent hills the nore and the north foreland & looking many miles to sea." In the same letter he mentions a walk on the beach at nearby Southend-on-Sea, remarking that he was "always delighted with the melancholy grandeur of a sea shore."1 He made a rough drawing of the scene at Hadleigh in a sketchbook, and this was to serve as the basis for the present large exhibition picture, painted some fifteen years later-one of the series of "six-footers" that the artist considered his most important contributions to the art of landscape painting.

When Constable first showed the painting at the Royal Academy exhibition of 1829, he had the following lines from James Thomson's poem The Seasons printed in the catalogue:

The desert joys

Wildly, through all his melancholy bounds

Rude ruins glitter; and the briny deep,

Seen from some pointed promontory's top,

Far to the dim horizon's utmost verge

Restless, reflects a floating gleam.

The association of ruins with desolation and melancholy was by this time a commonplace of art and literature. In the Romantic imagination ruins were awe-inspiring, or "sublime," because they suggested the shortness of human life as against the passage of the ages and showed the ravages visited by time upon even the sturdiest works of mankind; they were a memento mori, a symbol of universal decay. Through his choice of viewpoint in Hadleigh Castle, Constable sets his ruins against a scene full of the grandeur and power of nature: the ?ow of the mighty river toward the in?nite "briny deep," the drama of morning sunlight bursting through clouds. As the painting's subtitle tells us, there has been a storm in the night, and the craggy remains of the castle appear as though lashed by wind and rain, perhaps even struck by lightning.

Beyond its general significance as an image of transience, there is little doubt that Constable thought of Hadleigh Castle as autobiographical. His beloved Maria, whom he married after a long engagement in 1816, died of consumption in November 1828. He was left desolate and depressed, a ruin of a man-he used this metaphor himself-for the rest of his life. "Hourly do I feel the loss of my departed Angel," he wrote in December 1828. "I shall never feel again as I have felt. The face of the world is totally changed to me."2 He began Hadleigh Castle in January or February 1829; and it seems likely, given his deep grief and abiding Christian faith, that he would have thought of this view from ruins to distant open sea as a view, in spiritual terms, from grief toward consolation. The sunbursts and "floating gleam" on the horizon suggest the light of heaven and the bereaved's hope of reunion in the afterlife, while the Nore, between river and sea, serves as an image of the passage from earthly to eternal realms.

Malcolm Warner

Julia Marciari-Alexander, This other Eden, paintings from the Yale Center for British Art , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1998, pg.146, Fig. 59, ND1314.3 Y36 1998 (YCBA)

Presences of Nature - British Landscape 1780-1830 (Yale Center for British Art, 1982-10 - 1983-02)

William Wordsworth and the Age of English Romanticism (New York Public Library, 1987-10 - 1988-01)

Constable - The Great Landscapes (National Gallery of Art, 2006-10 - 2007-01)

Thomas Cole's Journey - Atlantic Crossings (National Gallery, London, 2018-06-13 - 2018-10-07)

Thomas Cole's Journey - Atlantic Crossings (Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018-01-29 - 2018-05-13)

Yale University Art Gallery 2015 - 2016 (Yale University Art Gallery, 2015-07-27 - 2015-01-05)

The Critique of Reason : Romantic Art, 1760–1860 (Yale University Art Gallery, 2015-03-06 - 2015-07-26)

An American's Passion for British Art - Paul Mellon's Legacy (Royal Academy of Arts, 2007-10-20 - 2008-01-27)

An American's Passion for British Art - Paul Mellon's Legacy (Yale Center for British Art, 2007-04-18 - 2007-07-29)

Constable - The Great Landscapes (The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, 2007-02 - 2007-04-08)

Constable - The Great Landscapes (Tate Britain, 2006-06-01 - 2006-08-28)

Nobleness and Grandeur - Forging Historical Landscape in Britain, 1760 - 1850 (Yale Center for British Art, 2005-01-27 - 2005-04-24)

The Romantic Landscape Prints - The Chiaroscuro of Nature (Yale Center for British Art, 2002-09-25 - 2002-12-29)

Great British Paintings from American Collections: Holbein to Hockney (The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, 2002-02-01 - 2002-05-05)

Great British Paintings from American Collections: Holbein to Hockney (Yale Center for British Art, 2001-09-27 - 2001-12-30)

This Other Eden : British Paintings from the Paul Mellon Collection at Yale (Art Gallery of South Australia, 1998-09-16 - 1998-11-15)

This Other Eden : British Paintings from the Paul Mellon Collection at Yale (Queensland Art Gallery, 1998-07-15 - 1998-09-06)

This Other Eden : British Paintings from the Paul Mellon Collection at Yale (Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1998-05-01 - 1998-07-05)

William Wordsworth and the Age of English Romanticism (Chicago Historical Society, 1988-04-06 - 1988-06-05)

William Wordsworth and the Age of English Romanticism (Indiana University Art Museum, 1988-01-27 - 1988-03-06)

Constable's England (Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983-04-13 - 1983-09-04)

John Constable - A Selection of Paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon (National Gallery of Art, 1969-04-30 - 1969-11-01)

Painting in England 1700-1850 - From The Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon (Yale University Art Gallery, 1965-04-15 - 1965-06-20)

A Great Collection of British Pictures in Virginia, The Times (London), Issue No. 55689, May 1, 1963, p. 5, Available Online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm: Film An T482 (SML)

Geoffrey Agnew, Yale's 1700 Mellon Pictures, The Times (London), issue no. 59989, Thursday, April 28, 1977, p. 9, Available Online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm : Film An T842 (SML)

Timothy J. Barringer, The Englishness of Thomas Cole, University of New Hampshire Press, Durham, NH, 2011, pp. 43-44, 45, fig. 1.18 & Pl 4, V2383 (YCBA

John Baskett, Painting in England: 1700-1850: the Collection of English paintings formed by Mr and Mrs Paul Mellon : on Exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, until August 18th, , Connoisseur, Vol. 153, London, June 1963, p. 101, N1 C75 + (YCBA)

John Baskett, Paul Mellon's Legacy: a Passion for British Art: Masterpieces from the Yale Center for British Art, , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2007, pp. 288-9, no. 100, N5220 M552 P38 2007 OVERSIZE (YCBA)

Ronald Brymer Beckett, Correspondence: John Constable, v.4, 6, 8, 10-12, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1962, p. 76 (v.6), NJ18 C74 A2 1962 (YCBA)

Peter Bishop, An archetypal Constable, national identity and the geography of nostalgia , Athlone, London, UK, 1995, no. 9, NJ18 C74 B57 1995 (YCBA)

British Art at Yale, Apollo, v.105, no. 182, April 1977, pp. 276, 290-1, fig. 9, N5220 M552 A7 1977 OVERSIZE (YCBA) Published as April 1977 issue of Apollo; all of the articles may also be found in bound Apollo Volume [N1 A54 105:2 +]

Catalogue of the Constable collection, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK, 1973, pp. 94. 190, NJ18 C74 R495 1973 (YCBA)

Centenary exhibition of paintings and water-colours by John Constable, R.A. (1776-1837), May 4th to August 31st, 1937. , Tate Britain, London, UK, 1937, p. 12, no. 6, NJ18 C74 T36 1937 (YCBA)

Malcolm Cormack, A Concise Catalogue of Paintings in the Yale Center for British Art, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1985, pp. 64-65, N590.2 A83 (YCBA)

Malcolm Cormack, A Selective Promenade, Apollo, v.105, no. 182, April 1977, pp. 290-1, fig. 9, N1 A54 + (YCBA) Another copy of this article may be found in a separately bound and catalogued copy of this issue located on the Mellon Shelf [call number : N5220 M552 A7 1977 + (YCBA)]

Malcolm Cormack, Constable, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, 1986, p. 86..., pls. 179, 181, NJ18 C74 C75 OVERSIZE (YCBA)

Tricia Cusack, Art and identity at the water's edge, Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, VT, 2012, pp. 26-27, fig. 2.2, N72 S6 A7195 2012 (YCBA)

Exhibition Catalogue. 1829. 61st., Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts, no. 61, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1829, p. 18, no. 322, N5054 A53 50-64 (YCBA)

Ian Fleming-Williams, Constable and his drawings, Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd, London, UK, 1990, pp.227-29, fig.212, NJ18 C74 F53 1990 (YCBA)

Ian Fleming-Williams, The discovery of Constable, H. Hamilton, London, 1984, pp. 17-18, pl. 16, NJ18.C74 F55 (YCBA)

Catherine M. Gordon, British paintings Hogarth to Turner, Frederick Warne, London, 1981, p. 8, ND466 G67 (YCBA)

Hadleigh Castle, A Constable Subject , The Times (London), Friday, March 1, 1946, p. 6, Available online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)

Hadleigh Castle, Constable's picture for the National Gallery , The Times (London), Saturday, February 8, 1936, p. 10, Available online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)

Hadleigh Castle, History of Constable's Paintings , The Times (London), Friday, March 20, 1936, p. 17, Available online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)

Louis Hawes, Constable's Hadleigh Castle and British Romantic Ruin Painting, Art Bulletin, v. 65., no. 3, September, 1983, pp. 455-470, no. 1, figs. 1 and 7, N11 C4 + (YCBA) Also Available online via JSTOR

Louis Hawes, Presences of Nature : British Landscape, 1780-1830, , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1982, pp. 157-59, no. III.30, pl. 1, 132, ND1354.4 H38 (YCBA)

Luke Herrmann, The Paul Mellon Collection at Burlington House, Connoisseur, v. 157, no. 634, December 1964, p. 221, N1 C75 + OVERSIZE (YCBA) Another copy available in YCBA Vertical File Collection: v 2334

Charles John Holmes, Constable and his influence on landscape painting, Archibald Constable and Company, Limited, Westminster, UK, 1902, pp. 107-12..., Folio A N80 (YCBA)

Charles John Holmes, Constable's Hadeigh Castle [ addendum], Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, v. 68, no. 399, June 1936, pp. 294-95, N1 B87 + OVERSIZE (YCBA) Also available online at JSTOR

Charles John Holmes, Constable's Hadleigh Castle, Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, v. 68, no. 396, March 1936, pp. 107-113, N1 B87 + OVERSIZE (YCBA) Also available online at JSTOR

Robert Hoozee, L'opera completa di Constable, 98, Rizzoli, Milano, Italy, 1979, p. 137, no. 502, Tav. LVII;, NJ18 C74 A12 +H66 (YCBA)

Horsfall Turner, Olivia., Nobleness & grandeur, forging historical landscape in Britain 1760-1850. , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2005, no. 56, V 1420 (YCBA)

John Constable, a selection of paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. , National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1969, pp. 56-57, no. 61, NJ18 C74 U5 (YCBA)

Michael Kitson, John Constable at the Tate, Burlington Magazine, vol. 118, no. 877, April, 1976, p. 252, N1 B87 + OVERSIZE (YCBA)

Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, Re-examining Thomas Cole, http://www.themagazineantiques.com/article/re-examining-thomas-cole/ , Magazine Antiques, Januray 9, 2018, fig. 7, Available Online

Ray Lambert, John Constable and the theory of landscape painting, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, 2004, p. 102-04..., fig. 26, NJ18 C74 L36 2004 (YCBA)

Charles Robert Leslie, Memoirs of the life of John Constable composed chiefly of his letters, Phaidon Press, London, UK, 1951, pp. 173..., NJ18 C74 L47 1951 (YCBA)

Charles Robert Leslie, Memoirs of the life of John Constable, R.A., The Medici Society, Ltd., London, UK, 1937, pp. xxxiv..., NJ18 C74 L47 1937 (YCBA)

George Dunlop Leslie, John Constable, R.A., Art Journal, Virtue, London, January 1903, p. 9, Available online at British Periodicals II Article retrieved from British Periodicals II

Anne Lyles, Constable, the great landscapes , Tate Publishing, London, UK, 2006, pp.23, 26, 37..., no. 57, NJ18 C74 C77 2006 + (YCBA)

Julia Marciari-Alexander, This other Eden, paintings from the Yale Center for British Art , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 1998, pp. 17-19, 146-47, no. 59, fig. 18, ND1314.3 Y36 1998 (YCBA)

Cosmo Monkhouse, The Grosvenor Gallery, a Century of British Art , Academy, no. 819, January 14, 1888, p. 31, Available online British Periodicals II Also available Film S2503 (SML)

Edward. Morris, Constable's clouds, paintings and cloud studies by John Constable , National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh & Liverpool, UK, 2000, p.157, fig. 92, NJ18 C74 C76 2000 + (YCBA)

National Gallery of Art, Painting in Georgian England from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1970, p. 20, slide 57, ND488 P25 (YCBA)

Olympic Theatre, The picture of the late Royal Academician , Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, London, Saturday, May 5, 1838, p. 5, Available online at 19th Century Brit Newspapers Article retrieved from 19th Century British Library Newspapers

Painting in England 1700-1850 from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, The Royal Academy of Arts Winter Exhibition 1964-65., , Royal Academy of Arts, London, UK, 1964, p. 21-22 (v.1).., no. 68, ND466 R68 1964/65 (YCBA) Also available on Microfiche: Fiche B214 (YCBA)

Painting in England 1700-1850, collection of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Mellon. , Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA, 1963, pp. 83-84 (v. 1), no. 113, pl. 43, ND466 V57 v.1-2 (YCBA)

Leslie Parris, Constable, paintings, watercolours & drawings , Tate Publishing, London, UK, 1976, p. 156, No. 263, fig. 263, NJ18 C74 P37 + (YCBA)

Leslie Parris, Constable, pictures from the exhibition , Tate Publishing, London, UK, 1991, p. 64, NJ18 C74 P373 1991 (YCBA)

Leslie Parris, Constable, Tate Publishing, London, UK, 1991, pp. 312-14, fig. 84, NJ18 C74 P372 1991 + (YCBA)

Leslie Parris, The Tate Gallery Constable collection, a catalogue , Tate Britain, London, UK, 1981, pp. 128-33, fig. 1, NJ18 C74 P374 + (YCBA)

Paul Mellon's Legacy, a passion for British art. [large print labels] , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2007, v. 3, N5220 M552 +P381 2007, Mellon Shelf (YCBA)

Christiana Payne, Where the sea meets the land, artists on the coast in nineteenth century Britain , Sansom & Co., Bristol, 2007, ND1373 G7 P38 2007 (YCBA)

Graham Reynolds, Constable's England, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, 1983, pp. 160-1, no. 58, NJ18 C74 R496 (YCBA)

Graham Reynolds, Constable, the natural painter, Panther, St. Albans, UK, 1976, pp. 17..., unnumbered plate, NJ18 C74 R48 1976 (YCBA)

Graham Reynolds, English Landscape 1630-1850, Apollo, vol.105, no. 182, April 1977, p. 276, N1 A54 105:2 + (YCBA) Another copy of this article may be found in a separately bound and catalogued copy of this issue located on the Mellon Shelf [call number : N5220 M552 A7 1977 + (YCBA)]

Graham Reynolds, John Constable, Struggle and Success , Apollo, vol. 103, no. 170, April 1976, pp. 323, 324, N1 A54 + OVERSIZE (YCBA)

Graham Reynolds, Scene and Sensibility, TLS, the Times Literary Supplement, issue no. 4178, April 29, 1983, p. 438, Film S748 (SML) Also available OnLine in TLS Historical Archive (ORBIS)

Graham Reynolds, The later paintings and drawings of John Constable, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1984, pp. 199-200, no. 29.1, pl. 704, NJ18 C74 R485 + (YCBA)

Michael Rosenthal, Constable, Thames and Hudson, London, UK, 1987, pp. 176-8, 206, fig. 169, NJ18 C74 R683 (YCBA)

Michael Rosenthal, Constable, the painter and his landscape, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1983, pp. 214-21, figs. 245, 247, NJ18 C74 R68 OVERSIZE (YCBA)

Lindsay Rothwell, Paul Mellon's legacy, an American's passion for British art : Sackler Wing of Galleries, 20 October 2007 - 27 January 2008 : an introduction to the exhibition for teachers and students. , Royal Academy of Arts, London, UK, 2007, pp. 5-8, no. 100, V 2038 (YCBA)

Jessica Skwire Routhier, Thomas Cole’s Journey Atlantic Crossings, https://www.antiquesandthearts.com/thomas-coles-journey-atlantic-crossings/ , Antiques and the Arts Weekly, January 16, 2018, Available Online

Simon Schama, The Yale Centre for British Art, TLS, the Times Literary Supplement, Issue no. 3923, May 20, 1977, p. 620, Film S748 (SML) Also avaiable online in TLS Historical Archive (ORBIS)

Science and Feeling in Constable's Hadleigh Castle, The Times (London), Tuesday, January 26, 1965, p. 15, Available online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)

Alan Sorrell, Hadleigh Castle, To the Editor of the Times , The Times (London), Friday, March 1, 1946, p. 5, Available online : Times Digital Archive Also available on Microfilm : An T482 (SML)

Denys Sutton, Principles and Priorities in British Art, Apollo, v. 122, no. 283, September, 1985, pp. 192-93, no. 37, N1 A54 + (YCBA)

Denys Sutton, Some English Landscapes in Mr. Mellon's Collection, Apollo, vol. 77,ns.# 14, April 1963, pp. 268, 282, frontpiece, N1 A54 + (YCBA) Another copy also Available in Vertical File - V1168

Basil Taylor, Constable, paintings, drawings and watercolours; , Phaidon, London, UK, 1973, pp. 10, 30..., no. 121, NJ18 C74 T39 + (YCBA)

The critique of reason : Romantic art, 1760-1860 : March 6-July 26, 2015, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, 2015, [pp. 6, 7], fig. 9, V 2574 (YCBA)

The Exhibition at the Royal Academy, London Magazine, 3d. ser., vol. 3, no. 15, June 1829, pp. 606-07, Available online British Periodcals II Also availble A88 55 (LSF) and Film S2561 (SML)

The Grosvenor Exhibition ( First Notice ), Athenaeum, no. 3142, January 14, 1888, p.56, Available Online : British Periodicals II Also Available : A88 At421+ OVERSIZE (SML)

The Grosvenor Exhibition ( Second Notice ), Athenaeum, no. 3144, January 28, 1888, p. 122, Available Online: British Perriodcals II Also Available: A88 At421 + OVERSIZE (SML)

The Grosvenor Gallery, "A Century of British Art" , Glasgow Herald, Glasgow, Scotland, Wednesday, January 4, 1888, p. 4, Available online at 19th century Brit Newspapers Article retrieved from 19th century British Library Newspapers

The Literary Examiner, Memoirs of the Life of John Constable, Esq., R.A., composed chiefly of his Letters. By C.R. Leslie, R.A. Longman and Co. , Examiner, no. 1965, London, Saturday, September 27, 1845, p. 612, Available online at 19th Century Brit Newspapers Article retrieved from 19th Century British Library Newspapers

The romantic landscape print, the chiaroscuro of nature , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2002, no. 14, V 0998 (YCBA)

John E. Thornes, John Constable's skies, a fusion of art and science , University of Birmingham Press, Birmingham, UK, 1999, pp. 136-37, pl. 54, NJ18 C74 T56 1999 (YCBA)

William Vaughan, John Constable, Tate Publishing, London, 2015, pp. 80, 83, 100, fig. 55, NJ18.C74 V28 2015 (YCBA)

Malcolm Warner, Great British paintings from American collections, Holbein to Hockney , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2001, pp. 166-67, no. 48, ND464 W27 2001 (YCBA)

Malcolm Warner, The Paul Mellon Bequest : treasures of a lifetime, , Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, 2001, p. 36, N5247 M385 P28 2001 (YCBA)

Timothy Wilcox, Constable and Salisbury, the soul of landscape , Scala Publishers, London, UK, 2011, pp. 161-64, fig. 131, NJ18.C74 W53 2011 Oversize (YCBA)

John Wilmerding, In honor of Paul Mellon, collector and benefactor, Essays , National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC & Hanover, NH, 1986, pp. 4-5, fig. 2, N7442.2 M455 1986 (YCBA)

Richard Wollheim, Painting as an art, Thames and Hudson, London, UK, 1987, p. 87, no. 70, ND1440 W78 (YCBA)

Jonathan Wordsworth, William Wordsworth and the age of English romanticism, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick Grasmere, UK, 1987, pp. 179-80, 232, no. 273, fig. 168, PR5885 W67 1987 (YCBA)

Yale Center for British Art, Selected paintings, drawings & books, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977, p. 39, N590.2 A82 (YCBA)

Yale Center for British Art, Selected paintings, drawings & books, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977, p. 39, 715 Y18 977b (YCBA)

Yale University Art Gallery, Painting in England, 1700-1850, from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, [exhibition at] Yale University Art Gallery, April 15-June 20, 1965. , vol. 1, W. Clowes and sons, New Haven, 1965, pp. 9-10 (v. 1), no. 32, ND466 Y35 (YCBA)


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